Anatomy and Things

Lauren here. This is my anatomy, nature, inspiration, and tutorial reblog blog. My art blog is over at puppy-chow, where I keep most of the things I draw, big or small.
libutron:

Some facts about the evolutionary relationships of charismatic dholes
Canids form one of the most prominent families of carnivores, with 36 interesting taxa in 13 genera that occur throughout most of the world. As a family, canids occupy every continent except Antarctica. Foxes, dholes, dingoes, wolves, jackals, coyotes and various dogs comprise the family. 
Within the canid family the dhole is something of an enigma and it is classified in a genus of its own - Cuon. All dholes belongs to the species Cuon alpinus, which includes nine extant subspecies.
The genus Cuon is post-Pleistocene in origin. In 1945 Simpson placed the dhole in the subfamily Simocyoninae of the family Canidae, together with the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) of South America on the basis of shared anatomical features, most notably the reduction of the role of the crushing post-carnassial molars. Many have questioned Simpson’s classification arguing that similarities in dentition are due to convergent evolution because of a highly predatory diet.
Currently, evolutionary relationships within the family Canidae, reconstructed using comparative karyology, allozyme electrophoresis, mtDNA protein coding sequence data, and super tree method, as well as the relationships at the genus level studied with mtDNA, shows that the living Canidae is divided into five distinct groupings. These include the wolf-like canids, which consists of the coyote, grey wolf, Ethiopian wolf, jackals, dhole and African wild dog. This clade is associated with a group containing bush dog and maned wolf in some trees and, further, this larger grouping is associated with the South American foxes. The red fox group is a fourth independent clade, and finally, three lineages have long distinct evolutionary histories and are survived today by the raccoon dog, bat-eared fox and island and gray fox. 
The wolf genus Canis is a monophyletic group that also includes the dhole. Basal to Canis and Cuon are the African wild dog and a clade consisting of two South American canids, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) and the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Consequently, although the African wild dog preys on large game as does the grey wolf and dhole, it is not closely related to either species but is sister to the clade containing these species. This phylogeny implies that the trenchant-heeled carnassial now found only in Speothos, Cuon and Lycaon, evolved at least twice or was primitive and lost in other wolf-like canids and the maned wolf.
In summary, dholes are part of a clade of wolf-like canids within which is related more closely to the extant jackals than to wolves.
[Source]
Photo: a pair of Indian dholes in wild, Cuon alpinus dukhunensis, from Maharastra National Park, Central India | ©Sandeep Dutta

libutron:

Some facts about the evolutionary relationships of charismatic dholes

Canids form one of the most prominent families of carnivores, with 36 interesting taxa in 13 genera that occur throughout most of the world. As a family, canids occupy every continent except Antarctica. Foxes, dholes, dingoes, wolves, jackals, coyotes and various dogs comprise the family. 

Within the canid family the dhole is something of an enigma and it is classified in a genus of its own - Cuon. All dholes belongs to the species Cuon alpinus, which includes nine extant subspecies.

The genus Cuon is post-Pleistocene in origin. In 1945 Simpson placed the dhole in the subfamily Simocyoninae of the family Canidae, together with the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) of South America on the basis of shared anatomical features, most notably the reduction of the role of the crushing post-carnassial molars. Many have questioned Simpson’s classification arguing that similarities in dentition are due to convergent evolution because of a highly predatory diet.

Currently, evolutionary relationships within the family Canidae, reconstructed using comparative karyology, allozyme electrophoresis, mtDNA protein coding sequence data, and super tree method, as well as the relationships at the genus level studied with mtDNA, shows that the living Canidae is divided into five distinct groupings. These include the wolf-like canids, which consists of the coyote, grey wolf, Ethiopian wolf, jackals, dhole and African wild dog. This clade is associated with a group containing bush dog and maned wolf in some trees and, further, this larger grouping is associated with the South American foxes. The red fox group is a fourth independent clade, and finally, three lineages have long distinct evolutionary histories and are survived today by the raccoon dog, bat-eared fox and island and gray fox. 

The wolf genus Canis is a monophyletic group that also includes the dhole. Basal to Canis and Cuon are the African wild dog and a clade consisting of two South American canids, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) and the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Consequently, although the African wild dog preys on large game as does the grey wolf and dhole, it is not closely related to either species but is sister to the clade containing these species. This phylogeny implies that the trenchant-heeled carnassial now found only in Speothos, Cuon and Lycaon, evolved at least twice or was primitive and lost in other wolf-like canids and the maned wolf.

In summary, dholes are part of a clade of wolf-like canids within which is related more closely to the extant jackals than to wolves.

[Source]

Photo: a pair of Indian dholes in wild, Cuon alpinus dukhunensis, from Maharastra National Park, Central India | ©Sandeep Dutta

(via howtoskinatiger)

thepaladog:

Anyone have any suggestions on curbing a dog whining for attention?

Sometimes we put Sage up in the bathroom while we’re eating dinner or taking a nap (like I’m about to do). And he hates it. He whines and jumps against the door. We’ve tried ignoring him, and that only works after at least thirty minutes of him doing this, sometimes not even that. We’ve tried reprimanding him, and that doesn’t work either.

:/? Should we just put him in his crate during these times? He usually will whine in that too when it isn’t night time.

I’d suggest putting up a gate and put a toy in there with him. get him used to that area; let him know that’s his playtime area without you guys. right now he thinks he’s in trouble and cant see you through the door; giving him treats and toys will give him some positive associations with the bathroom; “oh I get treats and play toys while I’m here! yay!” Right now though he’s whining because you’re gone and he doesn’t understand why; if you make it a happy place he enjoys going, soon he’ll be used to it, stop whining, and then you can take him out and expect him to behave himself.

exigetspersonal:

meli-blog:

coneyartinstitute:

ryanestradadotcom:

Do it wrong.
Cartoonists, writers, musicians, actors, filmmakers, we all get the same questions. And we all have boring, stock answers like ‘draw every day’ or ‘practice a lot’. Sometimes it’s because we don’t know what we did right. But the real reason is that every bit of advice we give you has an expiration date. The world of art is always changing. The things people like, the way those things are distributed and sold is always changing. By the time you put in all that practice to get good at what someone else told you is the way things are done, they aren’t done that way any more. The only sure way to become great at what you do is to break the rules. Not for the sake of being a rebel, but so that you can make something only you can make, in a way only you can make it. If you do something wrong well enough, it becomes the new right. So here are 5 steps in the right way to do it wrong.
STEP 1: Practice
To become a good artist:
Focus on making perfect art. Don’t show weakness. Use the tools that everyone else recommends. If you can’t draw hands, put them in pockets. If you can’t draw feet, crop them off the page. If you’re not very good at an instrument, play something easier. If you’re not knowledgable in a subject, write about something else.
To become a great artist:
Just make a bunch of crappy art. Do things wrong. Trust me, even the art you think is great, give it a few years and you’ll think it’s crap. So you might as well shoot for the moon. Grab tools that no one else has ever even imagined using, and see what happens. Draw everyone on horses even though you know the legs are going to come out all weird. Perform that long, flowery monologue you know you’re going to forget the words to. Film that science fiction epic even though the only creature effects you can afford are sticking Halloween stuff on your cat. Doing things you know you can’t do well so that you can do them later is the whole idea behind exercise.
STEP 2: Taking criticism
To become a good artist:
Show your only your best work to people you trust. Enjoy the praise, and ignore the haters.
To become a great artist:
Share your work with everyone, even the jerks. Put it online, show it to strangers. Show them the stuff you’re proud of, and the stuff you’re not sure of. When you show just your average art, people have nothing to say, so they just give you empty praise. But show them something that can be improved, and they’ll tell you about it. The stuff they tell you is gold. Don’t just be disappointed, write that crap on a post-it and put it above your desk. Think about it when you work. Each and every one of them gave you a free mini art lesson.  If they were dicks about it, that makes them a bad teacher, it doesn’t make you a bad artist. There’s a very good chance that they are wrong. But thinking about what they said, and why you disagree with it, helps turn that problem into a technique. Sifting through critiques is like panning for gold. Sift through the muck of poor wording and trolls to your own little takeaways. Write it on a post-it note and put it above your desk. Think about it while you draw. Use it.
STEP 3: Improving
To become a good artist:
Did you try something new and get a bad reaction? Oh no! Listen to the advice people give you and take that element out of your work. Make something people like.
To become a great artist:
Did you try something new and got a bad reaction? Awesome. There are two reasons that people say negative things about your art: because they see something worth improving, or because you’ve somehow struck a chord. Either way, you made them feel something. Figure out how you did it, and how best to use that skill. Did something you did make someone angry? If you offended or hurt someone, you now know how to avoid doing that in the future. But if you made someone feel something about the story or characters, you now have a skill that you can hone and use as a tool at a better point in the story. To make people angry, sad, happy, uncomfortable, or in any way emotional when looking at your work is a skill that few have because we’re so used to beating it out of our work. Many people compensate for this by adding shock value. You can learn to do it with emotion.
STEP 4: Dealing with rejection
To become a good artist:
Find out where art like yours is being published. Submit to them! Rejected? That’s too bad! Try again! Send them your new stuff every year! Never give up! One of these years, it will all work out!
To become a great artist:
Getting rejected is great! When you get a rejection letter, you aren’t losing a job, you’re gaining one. Finding a venue and an audience is now up to you, which is great, because if you’re successful, you’ll be the one getting rich from your work. All of those places were created because someone needed a new place to put a different kind of work. You’re now in the same boat.
STEP 5: Building a career
To become a good artist:
After a lot of practice and study, take all the advice people have given you, follow their lead. Make something you know will be successful, put it in all the right venues.
To become a great artist:
Do it wrong. Don’t do it right just because of all the people around you who say ‘that’s not art,’ ‘that’s not music, ‘there’s no money in that,’ ‘it’s not a real book unless it’s in print,’ etc.  Some of those people will be your heroes. Every generation hates the next generation’s music. Every generation of artists thinks the next generation are hacks. Following the leader is a good way to make art that pleases people in the moment, but doing something that breaks all of the rules is the way be the leader and make something historic. Tell a story only you can tell in a way only you can tell it. When you see a piece of new technology, a piece of ancient technology, an interesting bit of trash on the street and think ‘I could put art on that’, then put art on that. You’ll be reaching new people in places no one else is even trying. There’s no money in ANYTHING until someone puts something great on it. When someone tells you you’re doing it wrong, that’s your clue that you’re doing something that could change all of the rules, and a few decades from now, your style will be the one someone’s drilling into a beginner’s head, and that beginner will be coming to you for advice. Feel free to tell them what you did right, but be sure to also tell them: Do it wrong.

I’ve always subscribed to the manta, do that thing you wanted other people to do but they aren’t doing. But this is pretty good too.

Best pieces of advice I’ve seen since long

*sighs*

exigetspersonal:

meli-blog:

coneyartinstitute:

ryanestradadotcom:

Do it wrong.

Cartoonists, writers, musicians, actors, filmmakers, we all get the same questions. And we all have boring, stock answers like ‘draw every day’ or ‘practice a lot’. Sometimes it’s because we don’t know what we did right. But the real reason is that every bit of advice we give you has an expiration date. The world of art is always changing. The things people like, the way those things are distributed and sold is always changing. By the time you put in all that practice to get good at what someone else told you is the way things are done, they aren’t done that way any more. The only sure way to become great at what you do is to break the rules. Not for the sake of being a rebel, but so that you can make something only you can make, in a way only you can make it. If you do something wrong well enough, it becomes the new right. So here are 5 steps in the right way to do it wrong.

STEP 1: Practice

To become a good artist:

Focus on making perfect art. Don’t show weakness. Use the tools that everyone else recommends. If you can’t draw hands, put them in pockets. If you can’t draw feet, crop them off the page. If you’re not very good at an instrument, play something easier. If you’re not knowledgable in a subject, write about something else.

To become a great artist:

Just make a bunch of crappy art. Do things wrong. Trust me, even the art you think is great, give it a few years and you’ll think it’s crap. So you might as well shoot for the moon. Grab tools that no one else has ever even imagined using, and see what happens. Draw everyone on horses even though you know the legs are going to come out all weird. Perform that long, flowery monologue you know you’re going to forget the words to. Film that science fiction epic even though the only creature effects you can afford are sticking Halloween stuff on your cat. Doing things you know you can’t do well so that you can do them later is the whole idea behind exercise.

STEP 2: Taking criticism

To become a good artist:

Show your only your best work to people you trust. Enjoy the praise, and ignore the haters.

To become a great artist:

Share your work with everyone, even the jerks. Put it online, show it to strangers. Show them the stuff you’re proud of, and the stuff you’re not sure of. When you show just your average art, people have nothing to say, so they just give you empty praise. But show them something that can be improved, and they’ll tell you about it. The stuff they tell you is gold. Don’t just be disappointed, write that crap on a post-it and put it above your desk. Think about it when you work. Each and every one of them gave you a free mini art lesson.  If they were dicks about it, that makes them a bad teacher, it doesn’t make you a bad artist. There’s a very good chance that they are wrong. But thinking about what they said, and why you disagree with it, helps turn that problem into a technique. Sifting through critiques is like panning for gold. Sift through the muck of poor wording and trolls to your own little takeaways. Write it on a post-it note and put it above your desk. Think about it while you draw. Use it.

STEP 3: Improving

To become a good artist:

Did you try something new and get a bad reaction? Oh no! Listen to the advice people give you and take that element out of your work. Make something people like.

To become a great artist:

Did you try something new and got a bad reaction? Awesome. There are two reasons that people say negative things about your art: because they see something worth improving, or because you’ve somehow struck a chord. Either way, you made them feel something. Figure out how you did it, and how best to use that skill. Did something you did make someone angry? If you offended or hurt someone, you now know how to avoid doing that in the future. But if you made someone feel something about the story or characters, you now have a skill that you can hone and use as a tool at a better point in the story. To make people angry, sad, happy, uncomfortable, or in any way emotional when looking at your work is a skill that few have because we’re so used to beating it out of our work. Many people compensate for this by adding shock value. You can learn to do it with emotion.

STEP 4: Dealing with rejection

To become a good artist:

Find out where art like yours is being published. Submit to them! Rejected? That’s too bad! Try again! Send them your new stuff every year! Never give up! One of these years, it will all work out!

To become a great artist:

Getting rejected is great! When you get a rejection letter, you aren’t losing a job, you’re gaining one. Finding a venue and an audience is now up to you, which is great, because if you’re successful, you’ll be the one getting rich from your work. All of those places were created because someone needed a new place to put a different kind of work. You’re now in the same boat.

STEP 5: Building a career

To become a good artist:

After a lot of practice and study, take all the advice people have given you, follow their lead. Make something you know will be successful, put it in all the right venues.

To become a great artist:

Do it wrong. Don’t do it right just because of all the people around you who say ‘that’s not art,’ ‘that’s not music, ‘there’s no money in that,’ ‘it’s not a real book unless it’s in print,’ etc.  Some of those people will be your heroes. Every generation hates the next generation’s music. Every generation of artists thinks the next generation are hacks. Following the leader is a good way to make art that pleases people in the moment, but doing something that breaks all of the rules is the way be the leader and make something historic. Tell a story only you can tell in a way only you can tell it. When you see a piece of new technology, a piece of ancient technology, an interesting bit of trash on the street and think ‘I could put art on that’, then put art on that. You’ll be reaching new people in places no one else is even trying. There’s no money in ANYTHING until someone puts something great on it. When someone tells you you’re doing it wrong, that’s your clue that you’re doing something that could change all of the rules, and a few decades from now, your style will be the one someone’s drilling into a beginner’s head, and that beginner will be coming to you for advice. Feel free to tell them what you did right, but be sure to also tell them: Do it wrong.

I’ve always subscribed to the manta, do that thing you wanted other people to do but they aren’t doing. But this is pretty good too.

Best pieces of advice I’ve seen since long

*sighs*

(via lampfaced)

yeahwriters:

wrote-miss-ibis:

totalrewrite:

Formatting your Manuscript

If you’re planning on one day turning your manuscript in to literary agents and publishing houses, you need to make sure it’s formatted correctly. In many cases, your manuscript will be skipped over if it isn’t done to industry standard, so here’s the basics that you’ll need if you don’t want to be ignored. Before I get started, please know that this is aimed specifically at fiction manuscripts. If you’re writing non-fiction or a memoir, the expectations will be different, so it would be wise to Google what you need.

The Basics

  • Make sure your font is 12 point Times New Roman, Courier New, or Arial. These are the only three fonts you are allowed to pick from.
  • Your spacing should be 1 inch on all sides of the text. This is the default on most word processors, but double check your settings just to be sure.
  • Your text should be double spaced.
  • All of your indentations must be a half inch. Do not press indent. Instead, drag over the top arrow on the ruler to have every new paragraph automatically indent.

The Title Page

  • The top left-hand corner of your title page will have all your personal information. They want to see your name, address, phone number, e-mail address, the novel’s genre, and word count.

image

  • Your novel’s title is allowed to be between 20-24 point font if you want. Bold is also an option, but not necessary.
  • The title will appear halfway down the title page.
  • “A novel by [your name]” will be about three quarters of the way down the page.

The Next Pages

  • If you have a dedication, it will be on its own page.
  • If you have some sort of verse or quote, those will also need their own pages.
  • Do not include a page for acknowledgements.

The Chapters

  • Chapter titles will be 12 point font. No bolding or italics.
  • Chapters will start from one quarter to halfway down the page.
  • An easy way to format chapter headings is to press enter five or six times
  • Make sure you always start your chapters the same way every time.
  • When you start a new chapter, make sure you use a page break to bump the new chapter onto a new page. This will keep it in place so that it will never budge, no matter how much you cut out or add to the previous chapter.

Page Numbers

  • Page numbers will start with 1 on Chapter 1 of your manuscript. Page numbers will not appear on the title page or dedication page.
  • Page 1 will be labeled in the footer of Chapter 1. It should be centered.
  • Page 2 will be in the header of the next page.
  • From page 2 onward, your headers will be labeled like this:

image

  • If you insert a section break after the title and dedication pages, it will make it easier to insert the page numbers.

For the most part, this is the most important of what you’ll need to know for formatting your manuscript. I used this video as reference, so I’m trusting everything it says is true because it was made by an author who has several novels published, and because it was uploaded this year, it should be up to date.

But just remember, whenever you go to turn in a manuscript, make sure you check the website of the agent or publisher you’re trying to contact. They might have specifications that differ with the ones stated in this video, and you should always do whatever you can to abide by what they want.

Reblogging aggressively. Some publishers will throw your manuscript into the slush pile or, worse, the trash if you don’t follow their desired format. Spec fic publishers are especially strict about manuscript formatting.

Also reblogging aggressively.

(via darkwingerduck)